Gender differences in endovascular treatment of infrainguinal peripheral artery disease
Background: Despite ongoing research concerning comorbidities and clinical presentation of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), the issue of gender associated differences in treatment is far from being settled.
Patients and methods: This was a prospective, non-randomized multicentre study design. All patients suffering from intermittent claudication (IC) or critical limb ischaemia (CLI) were included.
Results: A total of 2,798 procedures for symptomatic PAD in the infrainguinal region were recorded, with 1,696 (61.4 %) males. Distribution of comorbidities for patients with IC were gender-specifically different. Smoking was more common in men (41.9 vs. 31.9 %, p < .001), men had more often previous coronary heart disease (35.2 vs. 27.7 %, p = .007), and suffered more often from diabetes (33.9 vs. 28.2 %, p = .037). Women were generally older (71 vs. 77 years). Men were more prone to present with IC (46.9 vs. 43.6 %, p < .001) and ulcer/gangrene (43.6 vs. 41.2 %, p < .001). Women were more likely to present with rest pain (9.5 vs. 15.1 %, p < .001). Men were more often treated for a lesion below the knee (BTK) (21.1 vs. 14.9 %, p < .001), and females above the knee (ATK) (58.1 vs. 61.5 %, p < .001). Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association of male gender and treatment for lesions BTK (OR 1.565, 95 % CI 1.281-1.913, p < .001). Dissections and bleeding complications were more often observed in females with IC (3.3 vs. 7.2 %, p = 0.003; 0.4 vs. 1.5 %, p = 0.044). Women were rather discharged to rehabilitation and had a longer hospital stay compared to men (3.4 vs. 8.9 %, p < .001; three vs. four days, p = .023).
Conclusions: The present study provides an overview on gender-specific differences in endovascular treatment of PAD. To date, available evidence on this topic is limited, emphasising the importance of further vascular research targeting this topic.